What are the most common woods in Europe and Sweden? Here you will find information about our most common European types of wood and wood qualities.

European wood qualities and wood

European wood qualities and wood

Nowadays, we have access to a variety of wood products and also to synthetic building materials of varying kinds. All such materials must be easy-to-use and affordable, but in some contexts they can never smash the real woodwork, the raw material that is built into the living growing tree. No synthetic wall covering in the world can compete with eg wood paneling. One not only has its characteristic appearance, it is also aged naturally and can even spread a beautiful, fresh and natural scent. This praise does not mean that wood as wood is always right through. The quality differences between, for example, core and surface wood are great, it is not easy to process wood and the price is high.

The latter feature is most in line with the long "production time" and the demanding storage. For example, the tents do not get their light brown kernel wood until after about 40 years and the drying process - which is both tight and space-consuming - takes about half a year. Wood consists mostly of coal, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. On the back of the card you can see how a tree is built up and how the plant is transformed into wood cells which, in turn, makes it work.

The so-called hair roots absorb water like capillary power, and through channels in the surface water are transported into the tree crown. The water contains a variety of nutrients, including lime, potassium and phosphorus. In the foliage or in the barren, these substances are transformed by the sunlight to the so-called photosynthesis - into a growth substance consisting mainly of carbohydrates, sugar and starch.

The growth agent is then led down the stem - into the inner bark - and into the growth zone, which is the layer immediately outside the surface water. In the growth zone, the growth substance becomes new wood cells. Most are formed during the spring and result in the lighter part of the anniversary. In the autumn, when growth is slow, the darker part of the anniversary is formed.

About shrinking twigs and cracks

Many factors affect the quality of the wood, including the age of the tree. Older trees have a smaller and denser range of birth. The wood also does not contain as much twigs but gets a larger core of dead cells. Both factors reduce the risk of attack by rot.

The taste is different, but most people seem to have worked so that the anniversaries remain standing giving the most beautiful drawing. However, it is undeniable that standing annuities are more durable than lying. When the wood dries it always shrinks. The greatest shrinkage occurs in the longitudinal direction of the annuals, which means that it is very important where the stock is taken.

No natural materials are free of defects and most plant defects reduce the sustainability. Big and many twigs are clear weaknesses. On the other hand, it is not always the strength of the work that is crucial. Twigs in, for example, a panel can be very decorative. Cracks should be taken care of because they always have disadvantages. Frost crackers, which are often large and discolored, are easy to detect. On the other hand, there are so-called cobblers cracks filled with corrugated-almost impossible to see in unprocessed wood.

Storing a Quality Question

The storage of the wood - both in sawmills and in the courtyard, in the construction market and at your own home - has a big impact on the quality. In the sawmill's so-called hiking dryers the wood is dried down to about 15 in moisture quota. But it does not work enough for, for example, decorations. It takes at least 3-4 months to reach a suitable moisture ratio in a well-ventilated indoor space. Nuts that should not be used immediately must be stacked on a flat bed with good air circulation.

If you save the wood outdoors, the bed must be slightly raised from the ground so that no moisture migration can occur and no grass and other plants can get up in the bar. The wood should be placed with at least 3 centimeters airspace between each board or plank. It is advisable to lay about 3 centimeters of ribs, so-called litter, between each turn.

When covering, it is important not to interfere with the air exchange. A comprehensive tarpaulin is not suitable. On the other hand, an open carport is excellent. Non-aerated non-flammable substances may also be exposed to fungal attack, which results in, for example, blue-wood, which is tolerated only in certain furniture making. When stacking indoors, no cover should be made. It is in the green moss, in the tree's leaves or barrels, which the organic material we call is produced.


It is in the green moss, in the tree's leaves or barrels, which the organic material we call is produced. Solar and oxygen transforms various building materials into the plant species - the unique process known as photosynthesis.

In order to take photosynthesis, sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are required. From the roots, the stream of water and nutrients enters the "factory", ie to the leaves or the barren. Just inside the inner part of the bark is the flow of growth substances led to the growth zone, just outside the surface.


Growing slowly grows more autumn and hence a larger amount of supporting cells. The thickness of the annual rings in Swedish pine and fir should not be less than 0.5 mm. Leaves that grow fast give more carrying cells and thus higher quality of life. A spring width of hardwoods of about 6 mm is considered to be the best work.

This is an example of how a tree or stock can be used for timber production. All shades that appear in the longitudinal direction of the annual rings shrink more than what is seen against standing annuals.


So-called horn twigs, which can extend over a width of a whole board, pose a high risk of breaking the board. Dehydrated twigs easily dissolve from the desired wood and leave holes. So-called bullwood, which occurs when the tree has grown crooked and then tried to straighten out, usually results in a crooked board. Avoid storing bark with bark at the edges - it increases the risk of attacking pests. Older birches sometimes produce a dark brown, so-called fake core. It may look fancy, but it's the beginning of the rot. The tannery of oak attacks steel.

Maple There is only limited access to Swedish maple wood, but the wood is imported from other parts of Europe and Canada. Maple provides a heavy and hard work with very good strength. It can be used as flooring materials, furnishings and many other carpenters. Virke from maple does not shrink very much. It is neat and has a smooth structure. The wood is white and the anniversaries are only slightly visible. There is no selected core.

Asp Aspen wood is actually used only in the match industry, but the home cutter comes into contact with the ash action at a special occasion at the sauna. Asp is the most suitable wood layer in sauna gardens. The porch is so porous that it rather insulates than reserving the heat chamber's heat. Aspen's surface is white while the core is slightly darker.

Worth knowing

The wood cells formed during a year are called annuals and are marked by the cellular structure varying with the season. During spring and early summer, thin-shelled hollow cells are formed. This bright part of the anniversary is called springwood. During the late summer and autumn, thick-shell compact cells are formed. This darker part of the anniversary is called autumn. Some American maple varieties are easier and poorer in comparison to European maple.

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Video: European beech|